Author’s Name : Baez, Joan. V

Volume 01 Issue o1  January 2014

ISSN no:  2348-3121

Page no: 10-13

Abstract— The interest on alternative fuels is continuously increasing to meet the growing energy needs and protect the environment. A successful alternative fuel fulfills the environmental and energy security needs without sacrificing operating performance. One of the successful alternative fuels is biodiesel which is gaining attention in the present day world. Operationally, biodiesel blends perform very similar to conventional diesel in terms of performance and emissions without major modifications of engine because the properties of biodiesel and conventional diesel are similar. biodiesel is prepared from hemp oil and  tests were conducted with different blends of biodiesel and diesel on a single cylinder four stroke diesel engine and performance and emissions are evaluated and compared with diesel operation.

Keywords—Alternate fuel; Biodiesel; Glycerin; Transesterification 


[1] Ando.B, Baglio.S, Graziani.S and Pitrone.N (2000), “Models for air quality management and assessment”, IEEE Trans.on systems, man and cybernetics-part c: applications and reviews.30(3), 358-363.
[2] Allen.C.A.W, Watts.K.C, Ackman.R.G, Pegg.M.J, “Predicting the viscosity of biodiesel fuels from their fatty acid ester composition”, Fuel 1999,78, 1319–1326.
[3] Bajpai.D, Tyagi.V.K, “Biodiesel: Source, production, composition, properties and its benefits”, J.Oleo Sci.(2006), 55, 487-502.
[4] C.J.Arrowsmith, J.Ross, “Treating fatty materials”, U.S.Patent No. 2,383,580 (1945).
[5] Chapman.L(2007), “Transport and climate change: a review”, J. of Transport Geography, 15, 354–367.
[6] Demirbas.A, “Relationships derived from physical properties of vegetable oil and biodiesel fuels”, Fuel (2008), 87, 1743-1748.
[7] Divya Bajpai, Tyagi.V.K,(2006), “Biodiesel: source, production composition, properties and its benefits”, Jounal of oleo science, 55(10): 487-502.
[8] Duncan RC and Youngquist W (1999), “Encircling the peak of world oil production”, Natural Res.8, 219–232.
[9] El-Diwani.G, Attia.N.K, Hawash.S.I, “Development and evaluation of biodiesel fuel and by-products from jatropha oil”, Int. J.Environ. Sci. Technol.(2009), 6, 219–224.
[10] G.B. Bradshaw, “New soap process”, Soap, 18, May (1942) 23-24, 69–70.
[11] G.B. Bradshaw, W.C. Meuly,”Process of making pure soaps”, U.S. Patent No. 2,271,619 (1942).
[12] G.B. Bradshaw, W.C. Meuly, “Preparation of detergent”, No. 2,360,844 (1944).
[13] Gattamaneni LNR, Subramani S, Santhanam S and Kuderu R (2008), “Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with rice bran oil methyl ester and its diesel blends”, Therm. Sci. 12(1), 139-150.
[14] Ghobadian B, Rahimi H, Nikbakht A M, Najafi G and Yusaf TF (2009), “Diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using waste cooking biodiesel fuel with an artificial neural network”, Renew. Energy. 34, 976–982.
[15] G.G. Pearl, “Animal fat potential for bioenergy(2002)”, The Tenth Biennial Bioenergy Conference, Boise, ID, Sept. 22 (2002).
[16] GuoqingGuan, Katsuki Kusakabe, Nozomi Sakurai, Kimiko Moriyama. (2009), “Transesterification of vegetable oil to biodiesel fuel using acid catalysts in the presence of dimethyl ether”,Fuel,88:81-86.
[17] H.D. Allen, W.A. Kline, “Process for treating fats and fatty oils”, U.S. Patent No. 2,383,579 (1945).
[18] Imahara. H, Minami. E, Saka. S, “Thermodynamic study on cloud point of biodiesel with its fatty acid composition”, Fuel (2006), 85, 1666–1670.
[19] J.H. Percy, “Treatment of fatty glycerides”, U.S. Patent No. 2,383,614 (1945).
[20] J. Sheehan, V. Camobreco, J. Duffield, M. Graboski, and H. Shapouri, Life cycle inventory of biodiesel and petroleum diesel for use in an urban bus, final report for U.S. Dept. of Energy’s Office of Fuel Development and the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture’s Office of Energy, by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/ SR 580-24089 (May 1998).
[21] McCormick.R.L, Ratcliff. M, Moens.L, Lawrence.R, “Several factors affecting the stability of biodiesel in standard accelerated tests”, Fuel Process. Technol. (2007), 88, 651-657.
[22] Rashid.U, Anwar.F, “Production of biodiesel through base transesterification of safflower oil using an optimized protocol”, Energy Fuels (2008).
[23] Rashid.U, Anwar.F, Moser.B.R, Ashraf.S, “Production of sunflower oil methyl esters by optimized alkali methanolysis”, Biomass Bioenergy (2008), 32, 1202-1205.
[24] Rashid.U, Anwar.F, Ansari.T.M, Arif.M, Ahmad.M, “Optimization of alkaline transesterification of rice bran oil for biodiesel production using response surface methodology”, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. (2009), 84, 1364-1370.

Full Pdf Paper-Click Here


Scroll Up